Are Endometrial Polyps Overtreated?

If you are diagnosed with endometrial polyps, what should you do? Treat or watch and wait? If you choose to treat, how should you treat your polyps?

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While the ultimate decision is up to the individual, the article and comments below give some basic info to those women trying to think through their choices. Two questions to ask yourself are:

  • What are the chances of endometrial polyps becoming cancer?
  • Are you pre or post memopausal?
  • Have you experienced bleeding?

Are Endometrial Polyps Overtreated?

A total of 17 articles were selected for review, representing a patient population of 10,572 women. Metaanalysis revealed that 377 women were identified as having endometrial neoplasia. Of these, 5.4% were postmenopausal and 1.7% were premenopausal; 4.2% of these women had experienced symptoms of bleeding, whereas 2.2% were asymptomatic. “Women who were menopausal with polyps had an almost 4-fold higher likelihood of that polyp being malignant than when polyps were diagnosed in reproductive-aged women,” said Dr. Kaunitz. Correspondingly, a polyp was 2-fold more likely to be malignant in women with bleeding than in those who were asymptomatic…

What Happens When You Watch and Wait?

From January to July of 2010, Dr. Hartman examined 300 women who had been diagnosed with endometrial polyps in the previous 2 to 43 months. The women ranged in age from 22 to 78 years. Factors considered in this analysis were location of polyp, time interval between studies, menopausal status, abnormal bleeding, blood flow, endometrial thickness, and patient age.

Results of these examinations showed that in 41 (13.7%) of these women, the polyp had naturally resolved; in 125 (41.7%), there was no change in polyp size; in 61 (20.3%), there was a decrease of at least 1 mm; in 49 (16.3%), there was an increase of greater than 50% of the originally measured polyp diameter; and in 24 (8.0%), there was a greater than 50% increase in polyp diameter.”

Risk of Malignancy in Endometrial Polyps in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women According to Clinicopathologic Characteristics

“Malignant polyps represented 2.5% of the total sample. Postmenopausal bleeding and age greater than 60 years were the only factors that remained associated with a higher risk of malignancy with a prevalence ratio of 3.67 (95% CI, 1.69–7.97) and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.01–1.09), respectively…”

Definition of endomtrial polyp

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An endometrial polyp or uterine polyp is a mass in the inner lining of the uterus.[1] They may have a large flat base (sessile) or be attached to the uterus by an elongated pedicle(pedunculated).[1][2] Pedunculated polyps are more common than sessile ones.[3] They range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters.[2] If pedunculated, they can protrude through the cervix into the vagina.[1][4] Small blood vessels may be present, particularly in large polyps.[1]
No definitive cause of endometrial polyps is known, but they appear to be affected by hormone levels and grow in response to circulating estrogen.[2] They often cause no symptoms.[3] Where they occur, symptoms include irregular menstrual bleeding, bleeding between menstrual periods, excessively heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), and vaginal bleeding after menopause.[2][5] Bleeding from the blood vessels of the polyp contributes to an increase of blood loss during menstruation and blood “spotting” between menstrual periods, or after menopause.[6] If the polyp protrudes through the cervix into the vagina, pain (dysmenorrhea) may result.[4][edit]Cause and symptoms
Polyps can be surgically removed using curettage with or without hysteroscopy.[8] When curettage is performed without hysteroscopy, polyps may be missed. To reduce this risk, the uterus can be first explored using grasping forceps at the beginning of the curettage procedure.[6] Hysteroscopy involves visualising the endometrium (inner lining of the uterus) and polyp with a camera inserted through the cervix. If it is a large polyp, it can be cut into sections before each section is removed.[6] If cancerous cells are discovered, a hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) may be performed.[2] A hysterectomy would usually not be considered if cancer has been ruled out.[6] Whichever method is used, polyps are usually treated under general anesthetic.[7]
Prognosis and complications
Endometrial polyps are usually benign although some may be precancerous or cancerous.[2] About 0.5% of endometrial polyps contain adenocarcinoma cells.[9] Polyps can increase the risk of miscarriage in women undergoing IVF treatment.[2] If they develop near the fallopian tubes, they may lead to difficulty in becoming pregnant.[2] Although treatments such as hysteroscopy usually cure the polyp concerned, recurrence of endometrial polyps is frequent.[6] Untreated, small polyps may regress on their own.[10]
Risk factors and epidemiology
Endometrial polyps usually occur in women in their 40s and 50s.[2] Risk factors include obesity, high blood pressure and a history of cervical polyps.[2] Taking tamoxifen or hormone replacement therapy can also increase the risk of uterine polyps.[2][11] The use of an IntraUterine System containing levonorgestrel in women taking Tamoxifen may reduce the incidence of polyps.[12] Endometrial polyps occur in up to 10% of women.[1] It is estimated that they are present in 25% of women with abnormal vaginal bleeding.[11]

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9 comments on “Are Endometrial Polyps Overtreated?
  1. Margaret w Bailey taylor says:

    Question: I had a polyp two years ago. It was diagnosed w US using uterine fluid infusion for visualization. An endometrial bx was done. Though negative for ca, I received a hysteroscope/D&C. Path results were negative for ca though a polyp was seen and removed. Then a year ago ( nearly to the the same annual date ) another situation of a polyp occurred. I refused in office bx due to prior severe pain with that process, though an US showed thickening of the endometrium. I was treated again as the year before, with a negative path report though again a polyp via the hysteroscope was seen and removed. Now another year later, I am bleeding. I am scheduled for an US. The GYN feels another polyp or re growth has probably occurred. In reading up on articles, it appears high estrogen levels might contribute to the development of uterine polyps. I am overweight and am treated successfully for HTN. Recently, I started actively doing exercise and watching my fat and caloric intake. I have lost 7 lbs in just over three weeks. Are estrogen levels high because I am heavy or is this part of being post menopausal? I am 68, stopped menses around age 50. I am curious if I can help myself with polyp reoccurrence or not. Are high estrogen levels needing/or can they even be reduced, if the cause for polyps or does weight etc enhance increased estrogen in of itself. I was always small-some thought I looked too thin and I ate robustly. Once I got passed menopause I have struggled gaining more each year. I have yoyo’ed with dieting, so am hoping this time I can prevail.

  2. Hi Margaret-

    First of all, thanks for reaching out. Our exchange on PBC will educate others. Your example of regular check-ups and polyp removal will reduce the risk of future cancer.

    Research indicates that being 15 years past menses puts you in menopause and should reduce your body’s estrogen production not increase it.

    Further, your research/reading up on your situation seems to be on target all around. Yes, menopause causes weight gain as well as hypertension. You are correct to moderately exercise. Losing 7 lbs in three weeks is awesome. You are on the right track.

    WebMD’s discussion should be helpful-

    The key to not yo-yo is to get into a habit of moderate exercise. Please read “The Power of Habit” by Charles Duhigg.

    Please confirm with your doctor but I think you can “help myself with polyp recurrence” by managing your weight and hypertension.

    Let me know if you have any questions- good luck!!!


    David Emerson

    “Causes of uterine polyps

    Uterine polyps are similar to uterine fibroids, most likely developing due to an imbalance of the hormone estrogen. Excess endometrial tissue develops in response to estrogen, causing soft uterine polyps to grow from the uterine lining. Polyps are more frequently seen in perimenopausal or postmenopausal women, but can occur in younger women as well.

    Uterine polyps are more common in women with high blood pressure (hypertension), who are overweight, or who are taking tamoxifen (a medication used for treating breast cancer).”


  3. Gee says:

    This is an eye opener for me. In 2011 I had a polyp removed and now i discovered it has recurred again. The doctor says he will carry out the same procedure as well as run more fertility tests to ensure everything is okay since I am also trying to conceive.
    However a previous check by a different doctor had shown my fallopian tubes were okay and had not blocked.

    I am however sceptical about all this tests and surgery (hysteroscopy) and I wanted to know if theres a need to also do the fertility tests or if removal of the polyp is all I need. I feel as if the doctor could be misguiding me since the surgery for polyp removal is really expensive for me right now and any additional tests for fertility may be even more expensive. Please give me your thoughts which I will highly appreciate.


    • Hi Gee-
      I don’t mean to sound wishy-washy but everything has risks and benefits. I don’t believe that doctors purposely mislead. I think that recommendations are all based on percentage risks. The article outlines the risks so you have access to some basic information. Consider asking the doctor who wants to do fertility tests what the possible outcomes will be with and without the testing. I have always found drs to be hardworking clinicians but asking the right question helps both dr. and patient to understand the risks and benefits of any procedure. Let me know if you have any other questions. Thanks. David

  4. kat says:

    post menopausal…likely polyp…supposed to undergo DNC but hypothyroid…had DNC one year ago…negative pathology…what if I ignore??

    • According to the article “What Happens When You Watch and Wait?”

      From January to July of 2010, Dr. Hartman examined 300 women who had been diagnosed with endometrial polyps in the previous 2 to 43 months. The women ranged in age from 22 to 78 years. Factors considered in this analysis were location of polyp, time interval between studies, menopausal status, abnormal bleeding, blood flow, endometrial thickness, and patient age.

      You are post menopausal but what is the location of you “likely polyp,” bleeding, if any, endometrial thickness and age? Based on these answers you can use the article above to decide to treat or to watch and wait.


      • kat says:

        52 yrs old. endometrial thickness over 13. according to GP, from transvaginal us—tiny cyst seen—gyn said suspects likely polyp. scheduled for dnc this week.

  5. Sandra says:

    I am a breast cancer survivor and was on tamoxifen for five years. A polyp has just been discovered in my uterus. I am to have an MRI and most likely a biopsy. My question is: due to the tamoxifen is there any chance of the polyp being benign?

    • Hi BC survivor-

      I am sorry to read of your breast cancer diagnosis however it sounds as though you are doing well. I have excerpted several paragraphs from studies that I think speak to your question “due to the tamoxifen is there any chance of the polyp being benign?”

      If I understand the studies, the polyp is likely to be benign and a small risk that the polyp is cancerous. I would proceed with both your MRI and a biopsy.

      Let me know if you have any questions or concerns. Good luck- David Emerson

      “Uterine sarcomas consisting of leiomyosarcoma, carcinosarcoma, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, adenosarcoma, and sarcoma not otherwise specified, are rare and estimated to comprise 8% of all invasive uterine cancer cases (8). In a review of all National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project breast cancer treatment trials, the rate of sarcoma in women treated with tamoxifen was 17 per 100,000 patient years versus none in the placebo group (7).”

      “In standard dosages, tamoxifen may be associated with endometrial proliferation, hyperplasia, polyp formation, invasive carcinoma, and uterine sarcoma.

      Most studies have found that the increased relative risk of developing endometrial cancer for women taking tamoxifen is two to three times higher than that of an age-matched population (1–3). The level of risk of endometrial cancer in women treated with tamoxifen is dose and time dependent. Studies suggest that the stage, grade, histology, and biology of tumors that develop in individuals treated with tamoxifen (20 mg/d) are no different from those that arise in the general population (3, 4). However, some reports have indicated that women treated with a higher dosage of tamoxifen (40 mg/d) are more prone to develop more biologically aggressive tumors (5).”
      “Gibson et al [19] recently reported the results of a retrospective review of endometrial pathology found at dilatation and curettage (D&C) performed in 240 breast cancer patients. Seventy-five (31%) of these patients had received tamoxifen, 20 mg/day, for a mean duration of 26 months as therapy for their breast cancer. Patients in this study were stratified as symptomatic (abnormal bleeding) or asymptomatic (curettage performed as part of another procedure or due to the presence of a thickened endometrial stripe on ultrasound examination).

      Among tamoxifen users who were symptomatic at the time of D&C, the incidence of endometrial polyps was 15%; hyperplasia, 2%; and adenocarcinoma, 11%; compared with an incidence of 13%, 4%, and 11%, respectively, for nonusers. Among asympto- matic patients receiving tamoxifen, the incidence of polyps, hyperplasia, and adenocarcinoma was 9%, 0%, and 0%, while nonusers had an incidence of 5%, 4%, and 0%, respectively. All of the cases of endometrial carcinoma were associated with abnormal vaginal bleeding. The 11% incidence of endometrial carcinoma in this study was comparable to what has been reported for all patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding in the general population [20].

      The mean duration of tamoxifen use in those patients found to have adenocarcinoma was 44 months, compared with 18 months in those patients with polyps, and 19 months in the patient with hyperplasia. This difference was not statistically significant, possibly due to small numbers. The authors concluded that short-term tamoxifen use at the 20 mg/day dosage level was not associated with a higher incidence of abnormal pathology, as detected at the time of D&C in breast cancer patients.”

      – See more at:

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